In 1894 Wileman began earthenware production in a new earthenware works.

Wares produced in the new works were labelled with unique backstamps.

There are few recorded dates for the introduction and use of them.

Start of the Spode business to 1833: the company was known as Spode.

Pieces were not always marked and sometimes just a pattern number appears and no Spode name at all.

Painted marks are often in red and marks can also appear printed usually in blue or black, (although other colours were used) or impressed into the clay so appearing colourless.

It is possible to have a combination of all three. Above is the image of a backstamp with the Spode name, the pattern number 967 and another small red cypher, which is a workman's mark. 1833 to 1847: the company was known as Copeland and Garrett.

Counterfeit backstamps have been applied to ordinary pottery, and in some cases transfers have been applied to bona fide Shelley whiteware.

To complicate matters, some genuine Shelley pieces have no backstamp at all, for example salt and pepper shakers. Bruce Sandie and the Australasian club for their generous assistance in providing research and artwork necessary to the creation of this page.

The study of backstamps is a science in and of itself, and only the brave have dared to venture into this impenetrable thicket of marks, numbers, and names.

By way of background, Wileman & Company was formed in 1872 to run the Foley China Works (replaced J. Wileman), and a variety of backstamps were used over the years.

The trademark with the three waves has had changes through the years.

This makes it possible to tell the age of each piece of porcelain by Royal Copenhagen.

Since 1935 Royal Copenhagen have added a small line in the trademark on almost every single piece of porcelain.